A global perspective

The lily Nomocharis sp. growing in the South Border, 11 June 2021.

Crathes is famed for the diversity of its planting; for centuries plants have arrived from across the globe. Sir James Burnett (1880-1953) and his wife Sybil Crozier-Smith (1889-1960) were the principal architects of the diversity, and the National Trust for Scotland has since tried to honour their vision. Whilst we celebrate the diversity, we have learnt, to our cost, that some plants can be invasive. The most destructive at Crathes, and across much of Scotland, is the Rhododendron ponticum that was introduced in the nineteenth century for game cover and for its decorative flowers. Since the late twentieth century the Ranger Service and volunteers have been trying to eradicate it at Crathes and during the last eighteen months it has had a free rein. Just recently the local scouts have renewed the attack. I have written about rhododendron eradication elsewhere.*

NTS Grampian Conservation Volunteers ‘rhody bashing’, 21 January 2017.

Other nuisance plants that James, Head Gardener, is keeping an eye on are the skunk cabbage, Lysichiton americanus, and the white butterbur, Petasites albus, both of which grow in the Woodland Garden. Gunnera can also be invasive, but that at Crathes is not, I think, the invasive Gunnera tinctoria, but G. manicata which is not a problem. The large leaves of these species are a problem if they begin to spread. There is some skunk cabbage on the Coy Burn, which is under the eye of the Ranger Service, but it is likely to have come from upstream since there are no water courses in the Woodland Garden – just a boggy area where the skunk cabbage and gunnera grow – so the threat of spreading from here is much reduced.

Skunk cabbage just starting to grow, 19 April 2021.
Skunk cabbage leaves in the Woodland Garden after flowering, 11 June 2021.
Leaves of white butterbur in the Woodland Garden, 11 June 2021.

The Gaultheria shallon which grows in Caroline’s Garden is currently being dealt with by the rangers along with essential help from Branching Out volunteers. Branching Out is an NHS partnership organisation that helps vulnerable people connect with nature and enjoy outside activities. Gaultheria is a North American plant that has become a real nuisance in certain areas of lowland forest and heath; like the rhododendron it was planted for game cover. Its deep roots mean that once it is established it is difficult to eradicate. Cutting back is not enough to remove it, but a treatment with herbicide following cutback should do the trick. Herbicide is used reluctantly, but is sometimes appropriate on target species. If this potential threat is removed now it could save heartache in the future.

Gaultheria shallon is spreading in Caroline’s Garden, 25 May 2021.

Reducing the diversity in the garden is not the answer to invasive plants. Our gardens would be so much poorer if we only grew native plants. Furthermore Crathes, in a small way, helps in an international context. The Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh (RBGE) plays an important role in global conservation, holding living collections of plants, such as the endangered monkey puzzle trees, Araucaria araucana, and Fitzroya cupressoides, both from Chile and Argentina. Crathes and many other estates in Scotland hold some specimens of the many endangered plants of the world as a safeguard from local dangers such a wildfires or disease which might hit the RBGE collections. The young arboretum at Crathes has a few such plants.

Monkey puzzles on the Chilean Hillside at RBGE Benmore Gardens, 10 October 2016.

This year the Invasive Non-native Species week was held 24th – 30th May and by coincidence I was in North Berwick on 29th taking a trip round the Bass Rock and Craigleith, two islands just off the coast. The coincidence relates to SOS Puffin, a project involving the invasive tree mallow, Lavatera arborea, which has covered Craigleith. The mallow can grow to over six feet and its roots prevent the puffins making their burrows. The boat trip took place in thick fog and rough seas, but we did manage to see some puffins and lots of gannets.

Puffins by Craigleith, 29 May 2021.
The lighthouse on the Bass Rock looms out of the mist, 29 May 2021.
Gannets displaying on the Bass Rock; they mate for life, 29 May 2021.
The roof of the SSC building on the left echoes the shape of Craigleith on the right, 4 June 2021.
The Bass Rock from North Berwick Law. The ponies are semi-feral, 31 May 2021.

Emily Burton, Conservation Projects Officer at the Scottish Seabird Centre (SSC), filled me in on the SOS Puffin project. Around the turn of the century puffin numbers on Craigleith had crashed from about 10,000 to less than 1,000. The mallow was dominating the island and also spreading to other islands in the firth, possibly as a result of global warming. For fourteen years 1,300 volunteers have helped to control this mallow, and puffin numbers are now increasing. There are estimated to be 4,100 active burrows this year – each burrow representing two adults. The mallow, which Stace considers native, is found on off shore islands and coastal areas in Britain.** It is thought to have been introduced to the Bass Rock by soldiers in the seventeenth century, possibly for medicinal reasons. The University of Aberdeen has been involved in SOS Puffin, testing soil samples for seedbed results, since seeding is the main way of mallow spread. So far it has not been a problem on the mainland coastline.

Tree mallow growing outside the SSC office. The seed heads are removed to prevent spreading, 4 June 2021.

It was a week of coincidences – two days later I was photographing the lovely wildlife garden outside the SSC office. Noting my interest someone – I later learnt she was Susan Davies, the Chief Executive of SSC – came out to talk and it turned out that early in her career she had volunteered at Crathes and Drum, staying in a wee cottage on the Drum Estate. At Crathes she had helped with education and footpath maintenance, but at Drum her work was with another invasive plant, bracken, Pteridium aquilinum. Bracken is a native fern, but can be invasive and at Drum the Old Wood was suffering from excessive undergrowth preventing regeneration of the oak trees. Susan’s job was to help look after the pigs that were used to root up and eat the bracken. Roddy Hamilton, of the North East Ranger Service, tells me that bracken is still a problem; he is going to be bracken bashing at Drum shortly. Sometimes they take in horses for a day to trample and drag a raft over the undergrowth – although they have to avoid damaging the young oaks. The Branching Out group, mentioned earlier, has been helping to mark the young oaks.

Susan also told me that there is still some mallow on the Bass Rock in inaccessible places. Although herbicide has not been used so far in the project, it is felt that it is appropriate to use it in such places to prevent further spread by seed. The same week, the World Wildlife Fund announced that puffins are high on the list of globally threatened species which makes the work on Craigleith of international importance.

Everyone loves a puffin – here’s one I photographed earlier on the Isle of May, another island at the mouth of the Firth of Forth, 8 June 2006.

Unfortunately the puffins are also threatened by shortage of food as the sand eels that they feed on are in turn threatened by global warming.

At Crathes, James is always aware of the implications of action in the garden regarding the climate crisis. The dipping pool that was uncovered in December, and originally used for watering the garden, is exciting not only because it will make an attractive feature, but also because of possibilities for water conservation. Even through the dry weeks of April the water that drained from the garden kept flowing along the main drainage pipe. After the water leaves the pool and goes under the road it connects to an old well. It may be that a pump could return this water to a holding tank that could be used about the estate and garden and in the glasshouses. Since water is presently metered this would save a lot of money as well as conserving water. Meantime a local contractor has dealt with the crumbling concrete of the pool and there now just needs to be an adjustment to the various pipes that connect to the drainage so that the pool can fill up and planting can begin.

Dipping pool now tidied up with water pouring in from across the garden. The water reduced to a trickle as the dry weather of June kicked in, 25 May 2021.

Water conservation is one of the aspects that Tim, apprentice, has been considering in his report regarding the carbon footprint of the garden, which is now almost finished. He says that writing the report has made him much more careful about conserving water in his own life, never now, for example, spending long in the shower.

In the glasshouses there is also a return to past habits. Joanna is slowly replacing the plastic pots with clay, especially in the show houses. The pelargoniums look great in the terracotta pots. They are all grown from cuttings taken last year. I never realised how many different kinds there are, both in the wild and in the cultivars. The show houses are now open to visitors.

Pelargonium display in the showhouse, 11 June 2021.
This pelargonium is labelled ‘Black Butterfly’, but the markings suggest it might be ‘Brown’s Butterfly’, 11 June 2021.
Pelargonium ‘House and Garden’, 11 June 2021.
Pelargonium ‘Chiquita’, 11 June 2021.

We are still counting the cost of the late hard frosts, with some shrubs looking dead and others slow to catch up despite the lovely warm weather – we went from winter to summer in the last few days of May. The handkerchief tree, Davidia involucrata, looked to be barely alive on the 25th May but by 11th June was looking fine, although many of the white bracts were blown off and lying on the ground.  The tender Fremontodendron californica was thriving and I was surprised to see that a row of night scented phlox, Zaluzianskya ovata, had survived the winter and is in full flower.

The scarlet flowers of the Chilean fire tree, Embothrium coccineum, are seen behind the white bracts of the handkerchief tree, 11 June 2021.
Freemontodendron californicum in the Upper Pool Garden, 11 June 2021.
Night scented phlox that survived the frost, 11 June 2021.

I am pleased to see that there is evidence of more mining bees in the Fountain Garden. Although I didn’t actually see any bees, they leave a pile of grey dust where they have pushed up through the red surface of the path. What is did see was the oyster catcher. I nearly missed it sitting in the middle of the agapanthus pot. Oyster catchers often try to breed in the garden, usually without success. I had noticed the scrape earlier and wondered; Cecilia tells me there are three eggs. The camouflage afforded by the growing agapanthus will maybe project the eggs from crows, but how will the chicks fare when they hatch? If they fall off the pot without harm and move quickly into some vegetation they may well survive. Fingers crossed.  

Oyster catcher scrape in the agapanthus pot in the Fountain Garden, 11 May 2021.
Oyster catcher sitting on nest, 11 June 2021.

The problem with weeds continues. When I visited on 7th June the first thing that met me was a barrow full of weeds, particularly the dreaded thale cress. Some planting had started, but with the ground so dry it will be expedient to plant out when the forecast is for rain. The gardeners were weeding in the Red Garden where the central bed had been already been planted with Nicotiana ‘Cuba Red’ and Amaranthus caudatus. The Viburnum plicata ‘Dart’s Red Robin’ has a lovely shape and was in full flower; in the autumn it will be covered with red berries. By 11th June the Red Garden is weeded and fully planted, with dahlias and aeoniums newly added. There has been no rain of any note and the gardeners are forced to water because the planting cannot be delayed any longer.

Viburnum plicatum ‘Dart’s Red Robin’ in the Red Garden, 7 June 2021.
Steve planting bananas on the Aviary Terrace, 11 June 2021.
Joanna planting out cosmos and sweet peas on the White Border, 11 June 2021.

As predicted the June Border is a little slow but coming along nicely. A good spell of rain, preferably in the night, would help.

Here’s a few of other plants that give Crathes its reputation for diversity.

The golden rain tree, Koelreuteria paniculata, planted a few years ago on the Aviary Terrace, has survived the hard frosts well. Sometimes called ‘The Pride of India’ it is native to China. Sir James planted this tree in the Yew Borders in the 1930s/40s and it survived until at least 1979; its replacement hasn’t yet flowered. In the USA it is listed as invasive.

The golden rain tree at the corner of the Aviary Terrace and the Yew Border, 7 June 2021.

Rhododendron haematodes was first discovered in Yunnan by Abbe Delavay, and later collected (as seed) by George Forrest.

Rhododendron haematodes in the Woodland Garden, 11 June 2021.

The Trillium rugelii mentioned last time is now showing its white, strongly recurved petals and dark stamens. It is native to the southern Appalachians.

Flower of Trillium rugelii on the Double Shrub Border, 11 June 2021.

The Lady slipper orchid, Cypripedium ‘Ulla Silkens’, is a cross between the red American C. reginae and a yellow Russian/ Himalayan C. flavum.

Cypripedium ‘Ulla Silkens’, 11 June 2021.

Also from the Himalayas is the blue meconopsis poppy. The pink Meconopsis x cookei is a hybrid raised from Meconopsis punicea and M. quintuplinerva.

Blue and pink meconopsis poppies on the South Border, 7 June 2021.

Rosa pimpinellifolia ‘Glory of Edzell’ came from an Edzell garden in Angus, and is the first rose to bloom at Crathes. Scottish nurseries derived a large variety of cultivars from the burnet rose which is common in Europe and parts of Asia. Many Scots roses have lost their names but survive in old cottage gardens. They are just coming out in the Rose Garden, but there are roses all over the garden and July is probably the best month for rose addicts to visit.

‘Glory of Edzell’ in the Rose Garden, 7 June 2021.
Another Scots rose, ‘William III’ in the Rose Garden, 11 June 2021.

Stay safe.

*Bennett, Susan, The Gardens and Landscape of Crathes Castle, (Torphins 2019)

**Stace, Clive, New Flora of the British Isles (Cambridge 1992)

4 thoughts on “A global perspective

    1. Thanks Jenny. Just back from Kingston-on-Spey where I saw one plant of the tree mallow on the Lein (part of the Spey Bay Reserve). It doesn’t seem to be invasive on the mainland.


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